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22nd Jul2014

Can You Do a Perfect Pushup?

by Tom

The pushup is one of those exercises that is often taken for granted in the fitness world. Like a bodyweight lunge, squat, or pullup, the pushup is a basic exercise that has been around forever and has been implemented in grade school physical education, bootcamp fitness, martial arts training, circuit training, and the military. In some or all of these implementations, the pushup is often done at high speed and high reps in a fatigued state while being mixed in among a circuit of other exercises. It also seems like such a simple movement that trainers fail to give any cues on how to do it properly. The truth is that the vast majority of pushups I see are done incorrectly and will lead to stagnation in the exercise as well as a number of problems down the road with the shoulder and elbow joints.

How to Perform a Proper Pushup

To get started, take a look at this video from Kelly Starrett and Carl Paoli from CrossFit San Francisco. Carl is a former gymnast and Kelly is a DPT (physical therapist) who has excellent training and intuition when it comes to how the human body should move correctly. They developed a series in the CrossFit Journal called ‘The Position’, which describes how the torso should be organized during the vast majority of athletic movements and fitness exercises. If some of their descriptions go over your head a bit, just keep watching and really look closely at Carl’s positioning during the pushup.

Some keys to focus on:

  • Rib Cage and Ab Tightness
    • The rib cage (chest) and abs need to be up and tightly locked in. When you’re in the starting plank position, picture pulling your navel and chest up tightly in unison towards the ceiling.
  • Elbows Close
    • The elbows should remain close to the torso throughout the movement. They should not fly out to the sides. One way to make this easier is to picture a clock face as you’re looking down at the ground below you. As you get in a pushup position, your left and right index fingers should be pointing at 11 and 1 on the clock, respectively. Most people will internally rotate their hands to the point where the index fingers are both pointing to 12 on the clock, which will exaggerate any elbow flaring.
  • Shoulder External Rotation
    • As they highlight again and again in the video, one of the big keys to stability is to externally rotate the shoulders during the entire motion. This will make the shoulder joint much more solid and keep it anchored as far back in the socket as possible. One way to cue this is to turn the elbow pits so they’re facing directly forwards at the top of each pushup. You can try this right now as you sit in your chair. First press your hands flat on your desk with your arms straight in a relaxed position. Your elbow pits will probably be facing each other. Now rotate them so they face the ceiling while keeping your palms flat. You should instantly feel your shoulders externally rotate and tighten up. This torque is what you need to remain stable during the pushup.
  • Vertical Forearm
    • As you descend into the pushup, keep the forearm as vertical as possible. This may feel strange at first since you’re probably used to the forearm being angled backwards. When you do it correctly, your torso will actually travel slightly forward as you descend and backward as you push yourself back up while posting on a vertical forearm. If you look at 3:23 – 3:27 in the video, you’ll see how Carl does this perfectly.
  • No Sagging the Low Back
    • At all times and especially on the push back up, keep the abs up and tight without letting the lower back sag. As you fatigue, the tendency to do this is nearly impossible to resist. For many people, you’ll see them do this on every rep. The reason this happens is that it’s simply easier to do a pushup when you let the stomach and low back sag. It lowers much of the body mass that’s being lifted, making it much easier to press out of the bottom. But it also puts your shoulder in a crappy position and lets your torso lose all tension, which will not do you any favors in the long run. The best cue to fix this problem is by squeezing the butt very hard throughout the entire set of pushups. Once you lose tension in the butt and the front abdominals, you’re guaranteed to sag.

Spotting Faults

I mentioned a few of the common faults when describing the key cues above, but the picture below is a good illustration of what good vs bad looks like.

 

The top picture comes from a Men’s Health article using a fitness model that is obviously lean and fit. The bottom picture is a still shot of Carl in about the same position in the video. After watching the video and reviewing the cues above, how many problems can you identify in the first picture compared to the second?

  • First off, her midline is sagging because the rib cage and abs are not tightly integrated and pulled toward the ceiling. It may look like she’s tight because she has a lean, flat stomach, but there is a significant arch in her lower back. Another good cue is imagining a straight line drawn from head to toe as indicated by the blue line in each picture. Except for the very bottom of the pushup, this line should be dead straight and run from the head through the shoulders, abs, and legs. In the first picture, her shoulders are too high and both her head and abs are lower than where they should be. Carl, on the other hand, has a nice neutral neck position, perfect shoulder position, and a tightly integrated torso that keeps the blue line running right along the exterior of his abs.
  • Her elbows are also flared, causing the elbow pits to face each other. By contrast, Carl’s elbow pits are facing forward, meaning he’s maintaining a very solid level of external rotation in his shoulders. This is a big reason why his shoulder position is right on the blue line, whereas the fitness model’s shoulders are loose and elevated.
  • One last fault is her tilted forearm. Unlike Carl’s perfectly vertical forearm, hers is angled backwards. This will reduce stability and put more stress on the joint, not to mention involving the triceps much less effectively in the movement. Notice that forward body lean that Carl has that we talked about before. Feeling your torso move forward slightly on the way down will help you post up on that vertical forearm, whereas the fitness model is kind of slouching into her pushup without inclining forward.

Progressions

The fact is that a lot of people will need to swallow their egos when learning how to do these correctly. The range of motion is greater to get to the floor with the tightly tucked chest not to mention the difficulty of doing high reps without sagging the abs and lower back. If your best effort produces pushups like the fitness model in the above picture, you’re better off going to a progression and working your way up the right way.

  • Elevated Hand Position
    • By placing your hands on a box, a bench, or a desk, the effective load of the pushup will be greatly reduced. All of the exact same cues apply except the movement is a little bit easier. Work up to 3-5 sets of 10 every time you train and really work on doing the movement correctly. If your abs are too weak to stay tight and integrated with the chest on regular pushups, you’ll get a nice ab workout by really fighting to maintain position during these sets. Slowly work your way down to the floor over the course of a few weeks or months depending on your fitness level.
  • Ring Pushups
    • Once you can do very solid sets of 15-20 on the floor, set up a pair of rings or TRX straps and work up to sets of 15-20. These will be much more difficult due to the stabilization required throughout the movement. Again, the same cues apply. Solid body tension will be even more important using an unstable piece of equipment like this. You can use these as an easier progression as well by setting the rings very high and keeping the feet on the floor.
  • Weighted Pushups
    • In addition to increasing the difficulty with ring pushups, you can also have a partner stack weight plates on your back during regular floor pushups.
  • Handstand Pushup Progression
    • Once controlled pushups on the floor and rings are mastered, you can continue to elevate the difficulty by working towards a handstand pushup. This is where a proper pushup progression is crucial. You can start with knees elevated on a box and then progress to feet on a box. Like the picture below, remember all your cues of a tightly integrated midline, external rotation in the shoulders, and a vertical forearm.

The basic pushup is an excellent upper body conditioning exercise that can be turned into a solid strength builder depending on how far you go with your progression. They key is to simply start the right way as Kelly and Carl describe in the video. Not only will this improve your pushups over time, but it will do a ton for your shoulder health over the course of your life.

30th Mar2014

What The Army Special Forces Can Teach You About Adapting to Anything

by Tom

I just finished a fascinating book called Horse Soldiers that was almost impossible to put down. It tells the story of the US Army Special Forces’ incursion into Afghanistan directly after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers.

For those that don’t know (I didn’t), Special Forces is a branch of the military that flies a bit more under the radar than the well known Navy SEALS or Rangers. Army SF traditionally operate alongside the CIA and are tasked with not only guerilla warfare during a conflict, but also the multi layered tasks of creating alliances and nation building once the conflict is finished.

In briefly chronicling the daily lives of the main soldiers leading into the 9/11 attacks, we get a feel for who these men are as fathers, husbands, and friends. This early part of the book also serves to juxtapose the monotony of typical Special Forces (SF) life in the States in comparison to the world in which they’re thrown post-9/11. Their life at home is built around routine: training, daily deliverables, and family life.

After the attacks, a series of events are put in motion that find these soldiers sent immediately to Uzbekistan as a staging area before being flown in midnight darkness over high mountain peaks via helo into the desert of Afghanistan. It is there that they meet the Afghan warriors of the Northern Alliance who they’ll fight side by side with in battles against the Taliban.

These dozen or so Special Forces soldiers are tasked with making alliances with a few key generals and lieutenants of the Northern Alliance and aiding them in their attacks in an attempt to push the Taliban north, taking key towns and finally the city of Mazar I Sharif. These SF soldiers quickly learn that the key mode of transportation for the Afghan army is horses, hence the title of the book. The battles unfold like a modern day western, with the Afghan cavalry charging into battle against the Taliban while the SF soldiers strategically call in air strikes on Taliban tanks and bunkers.

The bulk of the book is a harrowing 2 week tale of alliance building, strategic battle planning, and mental, emotional, and physical resolve that culminates with the taking of Mazar I Sharif from the Taliban.

What do we Learn?

Horse Soldiers was impressive to me on a variety of fronts, but what was so fascinating to me was that these SF soldiers were just simply doing their job. These extraordinary events represented them ‘at work’. The author Doug Stanton did a tremendous job chronicling this tale from a variety of accounts and was able to present it almost like a novel, allowing the reader to connect with the thought process and emotion of each character as each event played out

While the story itself was a great read, I always try to learn lessons from every book that I can apply to my life. The biggest take away for me here was getting inside the mindset and decision making of the soldiers when they faced challenges. What you learn is that these guys approached their job being 100% ready to adapt to any change in the status quo. From the moment they arrived, they were faced with: allies who might turn on them at any second, language barriers due to dialect, learning to ride horses, power struggles within the Northern Alliance, lack of water/food/sleep, no medical supplies, poor maps/position markings, and archaic military equipment.

All of these factors combined to create a daily schedule that was both draining and completely unpredictable. These soldiers had to be endlessly adaptable in order to reach the common goal of defeating the Taliban, pushing them north, and taking the city of Mazar I Sharif.

Focus on the System, Not the Goal

Boiled down to pure goals, their tale parallels what a lot of us face at work and in our daily lives. We have a goal in mind and certain things that need to be accomplished on the way to that goal. Throughout the entire story, the SF soldiers never let the goal become bigger than the process. Not once did they say, ‘we’re running into all these problems and failures…we’re never going to get to Mazar I Sharif!’. Instead they focused on their process, their system. That system involves dealing with every individual issue that arises in the best way possible.

Operators like SEALS and Special Forces have spent decades training that system of how to react when challenges arise. More than anything, that system requires grit and determination. Grit is a skill, a habit. The more you train yourself to push through difficulty, the more likely it is that you’ll keep doing it in the future. Without grit, a person will crumble at the first sign of defeat no matter how much they might desire a goal. Lack of grit becomes a habit too.

‘Small Wins’

In the Power of Habit, there is a really interesting concept called ‘small wins’. James Clear first turned me on to the book and the concept. Small wins involve the ability to be overly excited about a seemingly insignificant victory when a situation is in dire straights. Think of someone in prison who crafts a small sculpture on a daily basis…or a person that finds themselves in a country where they don’t speak a word of the language but finally make a small verbal breakthrough with a local.

An incredible real world example is from the story Touching the Void where Joe Simpson falls in a crevasse  and completes the most amazing survival tale in mountaineering history. During his journey out, his system involved focusing on taking one more step rather than fixating on the end outcome of surviving or not surviving. These ‘small wins’ of completing each step finally got him to survival.

The way we react to these small wins is crucial and incredibly powerful. Since it can be so insignificant in the grand scheme of things, many people get even more discouraged despite the small win. They feel like they’re hardly accomplishing anything compared to other people and that they’re a failure. However, an overly positive attitude toward small wins can produce a burst of energy that snowballs into more and more small wins that get larger and larger.

The SF soldiers reveled in small wins. Whether it was a cave to sleep in, a healthy horse, a few scraps or food, or an outpouring of thanks from the locals, they turned these moments into successes that drove them to continue toward their goal.

Stick to Your System and Enjoy the ‘Small Wins’

As you continue striving for things in your life, make a point to focus on your system and revel in the small wins on a daily basis. This will set you up to be wildly successful even in the face of the setbacks and challenges that you’ll surely face. In sales, get excited about good phone calls and pitches even if you didn’t close the deal right away. In learning a sport, focus on the joy and feeling of a perfect shot or swing rather than the frustration of not learning fast enough. In relationships, focus on connecting with someone and learning about what they love and care about, even if they’re small details.

In the end, it’s about learning to love the process whether things are easy or hard. A goal is just a single point in time, but the process is what we live and breathe on a daily basis. Refine your system, adapt to every situation, practice quality habits, and take pleasure in the small wins every day!

 

 

 

21st Jul2013

Experimenting With WellnessFx

by Tom

I’ve been meaning to get blood tests done for a while now (last time was a few years back), but often life can get in the way of things that are comfortably placed on the back burner. What finally spurred me into action was a cool new startup called WellnessFX. It was founded here in San Francisco in 2010 by Jim Kean and Brett Vaughan. To date, they’ve received nearly $6M in funding and have an offering that piqued my interest immediately.

The WellnessFX Value Proposition

In a nutshell, WellnessFX is ‘like Google Analytics for your body.’ You take a quick and easy blood sample at a nearby lab and 3 days later are presented (via browser and mobile) with your results across a wide array of health markers. The extent that you want to dive into more complex levels of testing depends on which product offering you choose: Baseline, Performance, and Advanced Thyroid. For $149, the baseline covers just about everything an average person would need to see, including the following:

  • Cholesterol – Total, LDL, HDL, Trigs, Lp(a), ApoB
  • Blood Sugar – A1c, Glucose
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
  • Liver Enzymes
  • Kidney Health
  • Electrolytes
  • Bone Health
  • Inflammation – Crp
  • Vitamin D

If you’re a high performance athlete or have potential thyroid issues, it would be useful to spring for the pricier options, but most folks would never need to go above the $149 option.

There is also an optional phone consultation with a health practitioner of your choice to accompany your results. These practitioners range from MD’s to Phd’s to dieticians and nutritionists. The majority of these consultants have focused their careers on nutrition and tend to be holistic and functional, meaning they focus on food and lifestyle rather than pills.

You’re probably asking…can’t I get all of these things tested at my doctor’s office for a small copay? While the answer is yes, you are able to pay for WellnessFX with a Health Savings Account (HSA), so it could be free to some people that have those. It’s also much faster (my blood draw at a local LabCorp took 10 minutes in and out). But what I love most about the concept of WellnessFX is it’s aim to educate. Not only does it focus on the right tests (like a deep dive into cholesterol, inflammation, and blood sugar), but it presents your results with helpful tips and videos on how to naturally improve your numbers, in addition to the consultation with a functional medicine professional. There are no doctors with agendas to push statins, liver medication, diabetes meds, or the government-mandated diet.

It’s simply another example of how technology can be used to disrupt and improve an antiquated service. The WellnessFX results are visually simple and stunning in a way that lets the numbers sink into your mind while allowing you to learn about each health marker at the same time. The program also opens you up to a world of nutrition professionals who can offer their expertise through consultations, blogs, and other resources that you would never be exposed to if you went the conventional route. The results are also portable in the mobile app and can be easily shared with personal trainers, doctors, nutritionists, corporate wellness pros, and friends.

The Results

I received my results within 3 business days of getting my blood drawn. I won’t lie, it was pretty unnerving when I saw the email come through that my results were ready. Kind of like that feeling when you get your finals back in high school…except you REALLY don’t want to fail this one.

Since I got the email while I was on the road and away from my computer, I logged into the handy WellnessFX app to check out my results. The display is very clean and straightforward. Here are my lipids, blood glucose, inflammation, and thyroid numbers.

LipidWellnessFx

Lipid Profile Presentation on the Mobile App

 

GlucoseWellnessFX

Inflammation, Glucose, and Thyroid Results

Each measure presents your number and a range for reference. The green zone is healthy, orange is a slight risk factor, and red is a serious risk factor. For each of these health markers, you can drill deeper to get an explanation of the marker and some basic information on how to improve it. In the browser based layout, it even gives you the option to watch videos explaining each health marker.

In terms of my numbers, everything looks very good with the exception of a few kidney markers that I’m going to look into. These results give me some confidence that my diet, sleep, stress, and exercise levels are all very solid.

My Impressions

In terms of layout, presentation, and ease of use, WellnessFX is fantastic. Having working knowledge on what these health markers are and where you stack up is half the battle here. I think a lot of people operate on an ‘out of sight, out of mind’ basis with this stuff and probably don’t even look at or try to understand all of these results when they have them done at the doctor’s office. With WellnessFX, all of your info is front and center, splashed up in colors that tell you if you’re healthy (green) or at risk (red). High salience here.

Overall, I would say that this service isn’t totally necessary unless you want to find a holistic nutrition pro and do a consult with them. The implications for the future are really interesting though. I would love to see a day where corporate wellness companies, insurance companies, and all corporate environments adopt a WellnessFX program so that workers can experience its benefits as part of their employment.

Our Future Hinges on Measuring and Improving Health

The CEO of WellnessFX, Jim Kean, likes to quote Lord Kelvin: “If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.” And all of these simple, beautifully presented health markers are the KEYS to your health. They must be measured early and often. It’s time to take your temperature before you get sick.

Like a lot of people in this country, I’m afraid for our health care system and the costs we’re sure to incur in the future if we stay on this path. Treatment is not the answer. Once we get to the point where a person requires treatment for diabetes and heart disease, it’s simply too late. We are in desperate need of preventative care. We need to shift the paradigm and realize that diet and lifestyle is so powerful that it can move the needle of ALL of these health markers in a meaningful way. WellnessFX is at part of the first wave of this shift and it’ll be exciting to see where things go from here.

 

 

 

29th Jan2013

Bridge Rotations for Full Body Mobility

by Tom

It’s no secret that stretching and mobility work is not all that thrilling. Kelly over at MobilityWOD makes it about as interesting as it can possibly get and I still catch myself wanting to skip it in favor of the fun stuff on occasion. That’s why I love mobility work that is more performance and skill oriented. If it’s something that’s progressive and skillful, there’s more chance I’ll enjoy doing it and keep it up over time. A good example of this is the Cuban Rotation, a shoulder mobility exercise you can conceivably work up to 50% of your bodyweight over time. Along similar lines, another excellent full body mobility tool that involves some skill and coordination are bridge rotations.

Why YOU Need to do Bridging Work

Before I talk about some of the variations, I want to hammer home why bridging can be so beneficial. Bridging…

  • Brings You Into Balance – Most of us sit hunched over all day. The upper back, glutes, and hamstrings are long and loose while the shoulders, chest, stomach, hip flexors, and quads are short and tight. When you’re in a nice back bridge,  all of this is reversed.
  • Is Comprehensive – While you may think certain parts of your body are holding you back from mobility, you won’t really know until you try something that challenges everything at once. A full bridge and bridge rotations put demands on the ankles, calves, quads, hip flexors, glutes, abs, back, shoulders, and arms for mobility and flexibility. Yeah..pretty much the whole body. If one area is lacking, you’ll figure it out pretty quickly.
  • Is Progressive – Like I mentioned, mobility work is more fun when it involves skill and progression over time. That said, let’s get to some variations…

Basic Bridging

single_leg_glute_bridge_2

Before we try to do anything crazy, let’s talk about basic bridging. Single and double leg glute bridges have been used by physical therapists and trainers for a while now. They’re a solid tool for activating weak glutes and extending the hip, but they don’t offer a ton in terms of mobility. Check out some basic single leg bridging in this video. If you’re inflexible or have never tried these before, give them a go. Otherwise…next section.

Back Bridge

BackBridge

Moving from the basic glute bridge to the back bridge brings in a whole new world of mobility challenges. While a lot of folks might think it’s just their upper back and shoulders that are holding them back, many times it can be incredibly tight pecs, abs, ribs, calves, quads, and hip flexors that leave you unable to push up into a perfect bridge like the picture above. Here is short and simple tutorial from Al Kavadlo on how to work up to the back bridge:

 

Bridge Rotations

Once you’ve mastered the ability to move easily in and out of a back bridge on the floor, you can take your dynamic mobility to the next level by working on bridge rotations. These can be very challenging on the ankles, knees, hips, and the upper back, but they’re pretty cool and open up some new doors as far as sequences of movement. Check out this short video from Ido Portal demonstrating some beginner rotations into bridge:

In the following video, one of Ido’s students Steve Atlas demonstrates some more higher level bridge rotations.

As you can see, there are some very impressive demands on the toes, ankles, shoulders, and upper back. Making it look that graceful and easy says a lot about the quality of Steve and Ido’s movement. Always remember that this quality is what we’re after. Anyone can plop down and do 1000 glute bridges in an hour, but moving with grace into a low bridge rotation is a rare thing to see outside of acrobatics, gymnastics, and capoeira. And as you work towards it, you’ll be more pain free and muscularly balanced. It also looks freaking cool. Good luck with it my friends!

19th Jan2013

The Cuban Rotation for Shoulder Health

by Tom

TheCubanRotation

In my post about Getting Started With Mobility, I touched on the concepts of shoulder internal and external rotation. In our quest to gain a solid level of badassery at full body, high intensity exercise (aka CrossFit, bootcamp, TRX classes, etc), shoulder rotation is something with which you should get very well acquainted. Unless you’ve addressed it specifically, the odds are you have internally rotated shoulders and less than stellar range of motion. This happens due to…

  • Sitting all day in a car or at a desk
  • Bench pressing too often
  • Playing throwing and/or overhead sports
  • Not balancing chest and back workouts
  • Compensating for a lack of mobility in other areas like the upper back and hips
  • Too many pullups with an already internally rotated shoulder (the lats internally rotate the upper arm)

Say you go into a CrossFit program while prone to many of the bullet points above. What you’ll end up doing is a TON of volume that will hammer your already tight internal rotators during pushups, dips, muscle ups, pullups, kettlebell swings, and the rowing machine. Because of a concept called reciprocal inhibition, your strong, tight internal rotators are also inhibiting the external rotators from doing their job in addition to getting so bunched up that you lose range of motion internally as well as externally. Put all this together and you’ll have some insanely inflamed shoulders, not to mention the hurt you’ll put on the elbows and wrists from having to pick up the slack for a poorly functioning shoulder.

Enter The Cuban Rotation

It might sound like a Communist military maneuver, but it’s actually one of the best exercises you’ve probably never heard of. In fact, I have no clue where the name came from, but word is that Charles Poliquin was one of the first to do it. It’s a simple movement where the humerus (upper arm) stays abducted horizontally from the body throughout the entire exercise, with the shoulder going from fully internally rotated to fully externally rotated and back again (watch video below). This is an excellent diagnostic tool and strength builder for shoulder internal and external rotation. One of few true external rotation exercises in CrossFit is the snatch and I’d take a guess that about 90% of people aren’t doing it with their shoulder in the correct position. Most folks are so tight in the internal rotators that they can’t fully externally rotate during the turnover of the snatch which makes the movement a poor trainer of the external rotators, not to mention a risk of injury.

So to counteract all of the internal rotation work and undo some of the prior imbalances to the shoulder, the cuban rotation is one of THE BEST exercises you can put in your program. It’s hasn’t gotten much love in mainstream fitness since it’s always been treated more like a corrective exercise, but some folks like Poliquin and Ido Portal see it as a legitimate strength exercise. Their elite standard is to build up to 50% of bodyweight for a single controlled rep. For me, that would equate to a 110lb barbell or two 55lb dumbbells.

Here is a great video from Dr. Clay Hyght describing the merits and performance of the cuban rotation.

 

One of the great things about this exercise is the ability to control the shoulder position from full internal rotation all the way to full external rotation. I’d encourage you to also try this up against a wall and to try and keep your shoulders back in the socket against the wall throughout the entire movement. Watch any of Kelly Starrett’s videos on internal rotation and you’ll notice how one of the big goals is to have full range while the shoulder is back ‘on the shelf’.

‘Grease’ The Rotators and Boost Performance

When you think about even the simplest movements like an overhead press or pullup, there is some very dynamic shoulder movement going on under load. At the bottom of the press, you need very good internal rotation to keep the shoulders back in the socket in a strong position. As you press up, this transitions to a strong externally rotated, ‘active’ shoulder as you keep the bar as close to the center of mass as possible. After doing cubans for a while in my warm ups, I noticed an IMMEDIATE boost to my pressing. I could keep my body line straighter and make fewer sacrifices in my torso position while also keeping the bar closer to my center of mass. By ‘greasing’ this rotator range of motion with cuban rotations, it’s like giving your shoulders an oil change. The press is smoother, stronger, and more efficient. With each quarter inch back in the socket and 10 pounds that you add to your cuban rotation as you continue to train it, you’ll see and feel a bump in your performance on pullups, presses, rowing, and olympic lifts.

Altering Yourself to Downstream Mobility Problems

Another great aspect of the cuban rotation is that it alerts you to other tightness  and clues you into some sacrifices in positioning that you may not have noticed. When I work hard to keep the shoulders back during a full range cuban, I get pretty hot in the tricep right near the inside of the elbow. This is a surefire sign of general problems like a valgus elbow, a rounded upper back, and poor external rotation in the shoulder. The tricep essentially is forced to carry the load in place of poorly performing shoulders and upper back on exercises like pullups and pushups (which means hundreds of poor reps since we do so many of these). Once alerted to a downstream effect like this, you can start working the problem there as well. Simply lie on the floor facedown with the shoulder up in flexion and flex your bicep. Then press your tricep down on a lacrosse ball on the floor right where it meets the elbow and go to town pancaking the tissue to try and loosen  things up.

Training the Cuban Rotation

You can honestly do this every single day as a bodyweight exercise. And should. Even if you’re in your office, go walk up to the wall and do a few sets with no weight 3-4 times a day. Do it in warmups, between sets, or even while lying on a foam roller or lacrosse ball peanut. When doing it weighted while standing, start light and go slow. Let your rotators acclimate slowly to the increased load. Greasing the rotators = better performance, more fun, and fewer injuries. And that’s what it’s all about.

18th Jan2013

Getting Started With Mobility: The Low Hanging Fruit

by Tom

If we take one big step back and look at working out, exercise can be a funny thing. It’s about getting work done and completing tasks. Reps, sets, supersets, circuits, etc. We have clear definitions for these tasks: chin over bar, chest to the ground, hip crease below the knee, arms locked out, etc. These definitions don’t really offer any useful cues on form, however. That’s why we have trainers who yell things like: arch the low back, bring the shoulder blades together, press with active shoulders, weight on the heels, and others. These cues dive a little deeper, but they don’t tell us what we really need to know, especially if your body needs a little fixing. To really take an active approach to correcting imbalances and boosting your fitness along the way, you need to invest some time in a little education.

I’ll say it right off the bat…if you want to learn everything you’ll ever need to know about the way the body should move while you’re working out, go watch every video Kelly Starrett has ever made at MobilityWOD. Whether it takes you a month or a year to watch them all and let the info sink in, it’s something that’s more important to your long term health than just about anything besides diet and sleep. And the videos are all FREE. A complete no brainer. Go do it.

At first, you’ll be overwhelmed by the terminology and get a little lost. Luckily Kelly is one of the most entertaining people on the internet and has managed to make anatomy and kinesiology  as interesting and relevant as Monday Night Football. You gotta stick with it. After a few dozen videos, patterns will start to materialize and you’ll begin to remember things that you can apply in the gym. For now, I’m going to give you some of the quick hits that I think are THE most crucial starting points for most people looking to get serious about high intensity, full body training…

Shoulder Internal Rotation & Shoulder Extension

ShoulderRotation

Put your arm out in front of you like you’re going to arm wrestle someone. Now pretend you’re winning and pin the imaginary arm. What your shoulder is doing is internally rotating. Do the opposite and you’re externally rotating. Now pretend you’re on the outside rail of a cruise ship and you’re leaning towards the water with your arms straight back behind you holding the rail. Here your shoulder is in full extension. The shoulder in full flexion is when your arms are straight up in the air and your biceps are by your ears.

Over the past year, I’ve come to the realization that my very poor internal rotation and extension in the shoulder are two of the biggest limitations on my upper body performance. Think about these positions: bottom of the overhead press, top of the pullup, 2nd and 3rd pull of the clean, bottom of the dip, and even arm position during the back squat. If you don’t have squeaky clean internal rotation and extension in the shoulder, you’re leaving something on the table during all of these exercises.

If you watch enough of the MobilityWod videos, you’ll start to catch that Kelly hammers on shoulder IR and extension and highlights it as a huge barrier to performance. He also mentions that overhead athletes like volleyball players and kayak paddlers like him are prone to it. I know from experience playing tennis, golf, baseball, and swimming that overhead work can trash shoulder function if you’re not careful.

To get you started here’s a great MWod titled The Biggest Shoulder Problem of Them All (gee, you think missing IR is a big deal?).

Thoracic Spine Extension

TSpineExtension

This is another biggie that Kelly makes a point of emphasis. Losing mobility in the upper back (thoracic spine) is something we are all prone to given modern living. T spine extension happens when you pull your shoulder blades together and flatten the upper back. T spine flexion is when you pull the shoulders forward and let the upper back round. One thing that’s key to realize is that there is a ton going on in the upper back. Fixing yourself is not a matter of simply pulling your shoulder blades together and going on your merry way. Everything feeds in back there. Traps, rib muscles, rhomboids, rotator cuff, the deltoids, and the neck. Even tight pecs on the front side can have a significant impact on the tightness of the upper back (and often do).

This MWOD with the plate pinned on the chest is amazing for both the upper back and shoulders. Try it out. But realize this is not an easy fix. Mobilizing the upper back is a big and worthwhile project.

Scapular Mobility & Control

scapmobilityback

Your scapulae (shoulder blades) are arguably the the most important bones in your body for movement. They have 17 different muscle attachments and sit delicately across the top of the upper back (another reason thoracic mobility is so crucial). When it comes to the upper body, the scapulae run the show. These small, arrow shaped bones are the reason we have a wide range of movement, strength, and coordination in our shoulders and arms. The scaps can slide and glide to allow us to reach for something, but also lock down tight so we can kick up into a strong handstand. They are a pretty phenomenal piece of standard equipment in the human body. Due to their large number of muscle attachments, it’s very common for imbalances to occur in the scapulae. They are commonly rendered less functional by tightness in the pecs, shoulders, lats, and upper traps, and weakness in the external rotators and lower traps.

Kelly spends a lot of time in his videos focusing on both the scaps and t spine in conjunction. Here’s another good MWod to get you started on mobilizing the scaps.

How To Apply These Mobilizations

I do a version of shoulder IR/Extension, T spine Extension, and Scap mobility during EVERY warm up and also between a lot of my work sets. They are limiting factors for me and I can see visible improvement in both my body alignment and my performance if I do them consistently during a workout session. If you have really tight pecs and anterior deltoids, I’d also recommend a simple doorway pec stretch or pec stretch with a band. Really get in there and hunt around for tightness. The more you open up the pecs and delts, the easier it will be to keep the t spine extended and to keep the shoulders back during IR/Extension work.

There is certainly a ton more to learn and we haven’t even gotten to the hips, but gaining a good understanding of the three sections I listed above will get you well on your way.

07th Nov2012

Reverse Pyramid Training

by Tom

When it comes down to it, a ton of different programs can be effective, so it’s important to find one that works for you. In the end, never lose sight of the goal…which is to add reps and add weight. One of the simplest, most effective, and most versatile ways to do this is Reverse Pyramid Training. I first read about it on Martin Berkhan’s Leangains site.

In the first workout I posted, I told you to establish good sets of 8 in the deadlift, bench, and barbell row. These are henceforth known as ‘top sets’ for each exercise. The top set is the hardest set of an exercise during that particular workout. In the Reverse Pyramid style, you’ll notice the top set is done immediately (after warming up thoroughly). This can be counterintuitive to most people…and it certainly was to me wen I first read about it. From lifting in high school and reading health magazines, we’re used to the conventional style of starting with light weight and high reps and ‘pyramiding’ up to heavier weight and low reps. Conversely, reverse pyramiding is where you warm up just enough to be ready to handle the biggest weights, but not so much that you tax yourself unnecessarily. That allows for all of your focus and energy to go into one big top set to try and bump up your personal record. The following sets reverse pyramid down to lighter weight and higher reps, which are still very taxing and useful but psychologically feel easier since the weight is lighter than the first set.

It was a little mind blowing when I first read this on Martin’s site because it actually makes a ton of sense. Then I tried it for a while and it really does work well. There is something really powerful about doing a very hard set of 8 squats at a heavy weight and then dropping the weight 10% and then doing a set of 10 for your second set. While still difficult, that second set is MUCH easier than if you had pyramided upwards from a lighter weight. This makes for an incredibly useful second work set. Then for the third set, drop 10% again for a set of 12-14 you’ll have gotten in some very impressive work.

Reverse pyramid training is also a whole lot of fun when it comes to progression. Week after week, you can channel your energy into that single top set for each exercise and try to increase the weight. You also have a ton of flexibility with how you handle your volume. Say last week, you hit 275×8 in the squat fairly easily and then did your backoff sets of 10 and 14 and really went hard on those. Then you come in this week and make 280×8 but only barely. At this point, you could do your second set of 10 and then decide to ditch the third set in order to recover better for the following week.

Another method to keep progression going when you stagnate is to switch up rep ranges for a given weight. If you’re really grinding to a halt on sets of 8 at a particular weight, use that weight plus about 5 pounds and do sets of 6 for your top set from now on. This will give you some runway to build a little reserve and make progress on sets of 6 for a few months before switching it up.

15th Aug2012

The Underappreciated Weighted Pushup

by Tom

As far as exercises go, the pushup is one of the most commonly performed movements in fitness. I’m guessing that the entirety of the readership of this blog has done at least 1 good set in their lives, even if it may have been during a drunken max out contest (raises hand). There is ample reason for the use and popularity of the pushup as a training tool and assessment of physical fitness. The exercise is a very effective conditioning tool for advanced trainees and an ideal upper body strength builder for beginners when done correctly.

CrossFit Resurrects the Pushup

In the lifting and athletic community, the bench press is still the king of all gym exercises. It gets talked about, worked first, and prioritized over nearly all else in the average training program. While the bench press is still the ultimate builder of upper body strength, excessive benching will often cause people to reduce or even eliminate pushup variations from their training programs. Many typical gym routines will include a few bench variations, dumbbell pressing, and a little bit of cable work to round out the chest and shoulder workout.

CrossFit has done well to bring pushups back into the mainstream by including a heavy dose of them in their programming. As long as they’re done correctly (see my post about how to perfect the pushup), they’re an excellent training tool. Traditional CrossFit programming uses regular pushups in their conditioning workouts while also utilizing more challenging movements like ring pushups and handstand pushups as standalone strength builders. One of the earliest (and most potent) CrossFit workouts is Cindy, which requires you to perform as many rounds of 5 pullups, 10 pushups, and 15 bodyweight squats as possible in 20 minutes.

Other training programs have also contributed to the resurrection of the pushup, with P90X and TRX bringing it back into vogue as well. P90X uses high volume pushups targeted to inactive folks looking to get in shape, while TRX provides some variety in the form of suspension training similar to gymnastics rings. The fact is that there are literally dozens of ways to effectively train the pushup both for conditioning and strength. Despite all of the variations, one method that is rarely used is a good old fashioned weighted pushup. CrossFit does very well to outline progressions toward a handstand pushup, but they pay little heed to standard weighted pushup progressions.

The Weighted Pushup

Adding weight to a regular pushup is very simple and can be done in a few ways.

Stack plates on the upper back

    • This is the preferred method at my gym. As long as you have another training partner, it’s the easiest and quickest method for loading and unloading. Here is Alex busting out a set of 10 with 65 pounds on his back.
    • Not only are they easy to load and unload, but you can stack multiple plates on the back and take them off one by one throughout a set, effectively doing drop sets with weighted pushups.

Wrap heavy chains around the torso

    • Another great way to load the pushup is with length of heavy chain. This will keep the load a bit more stable than stacking a weight plate, though it takes longer to get on and off and it’s harder to vary the weight since you need different lengths and thicknesses of chains.
    • As you can see in the video below, the chain ends are left loose and hanging below the body. The benefit of this is that it varies the load throughout the range of motion. During the most difficult portion of the pushup near the bottom, the load is lessened due to much of the chain resting on the ground. At the top of the movement, the entirety of the chain is off the ground

Using a Weighted Vest

    • Another method for doing weighted pushups is by using a weighted vest. Like the other methods, there are both benefits and drawbacks to using a vest.
    • One thing I dislike about using a vest  is that much of the weight hangs off the front if you weight the vest evenly. This causes the front to be bulky and limit the range of motion at the bottom of the pushup. One way to fix this issue is the to raise the hands on pushup handles or bumper plates.
    • One great benefit of using the vest over the other two methods is the ability to combine exercises seamlessly into a circuit without stopping. The simple ‘Cindy’ circuit that I mentioned earlier is made significantly harder by wearing a 20lb weighted vest while doing it.
    • A weighted vest is also a great way to load exercises like the pushup when you’re working out alone. This is the preferred way to vary the loading when you don’t have a training partner to load and unload plates on your back.

 

Rep Ranges for the Weighted Pushup

With the weighted pushup, reps and sets can be varied in a number of different ways. In general, I’d have people wait to perform the weighted pushup until they can perform 15 solid pushups without any weight. At that point, you can start adding 5 or 10 pound plates on the back for sets of 5 to 10 reps.

In terms of rep ranges, I really like anything from 8 – 12. Using a challenging weight for a set of 10 will not only provide a tremendous upper body stimulus, but will also be an excellent test for the abdominals. Maintaining quality form on the weighted pushup requires a high degree of tension in the abs since the lower back wants to sag due to the load being placed on the upper back. A 10 rep set will last 20-25 seconds and challenge the abs significantly.

Supersetting the Weighted Pushup with a Pull

One of my favorite supersets in the gym is alternating the barbell row with the weighted pushup. This opposes a horizontal push (pushup) with a horizontal pull (barbell row), and both exercises put demands on both the upper body and the abdominals. To do this, find a good weight for the barbell row for a set of 10 and a good weight to load on the back for a set of 10 pushups. Perform a set of pushups then rest 60 seconds and then do a set of rows and rest 60 seconds. Repeat this for a total of 5 sets of each exercise.

This is a great superset to do in a gym like Crunch or 24 Hr since all you need is a barbell and some plates. You could even do the rows with heavy dumbbells if a barbell isn’t available. You can also superset the weighted pushup with other pulls such as the good old fashioned pullup or a ring/TRX row.

Make Up Your Own Variations

In the end, I’d urge anyone to try any combinations you can think of with the weighted pushup. It’s a simple and effective training tool that most people don’t take advantage of in their training.

20th Jan2012

The Case For Minimalist Shoes in Fitness Training

by Tom

“The human foot is a masterpiece of engineering and a work of art.” – Leonardo DaVinci

As is evident from his sketches of vitruvian man, Leonardo DaVinci had a strong affinity for the measurements and function of the human body. He was also a very accomplished mechanical engineer and architect, among other things. Given his genius and his legacy of great works, his quotation about the human foot should be taken into deep consideration.

The Power of the Arch

The key to quality architecture and engineering is a design that will bear load and distribute force in the best way possible. One of the simplest and widely used structures is the arch. The arch, notably used in bridge design, is able to reduce shear, tension, and torsional stress by taking advantage of the compressive force on the arch and making the whole structure more stable horizontally. Though the first arch bridge dates back to 1300 B.C., they weren’t used extensively until the Romans utilized them in structures such as the Segovia Aqueduct (A.D. 100). Below is a basic illustration of an arch bridge:

 

In an arch bridge, the keystone bears the brunt of the force from the mass above it. Force is transferred horizontally along the components of the arch all the way to the supporting abutments, which are positioned securely on the ground. As long as the abutments are securely positioned, the whole structure will be rock solid. The more compressive force that’s placed on the keystone, the stronger the arch becomes. Many arch bridges are constructed using a heavy fill material to increase the weight on top of the keystone in order to make the arch more stable and resistant to shear and torsion.

The Rainbow Bridge near Niagara Falls is a more modern steel version of the arch bridges originally popularized by the Romans. Unlike Roman concrete architecture that utilized many rows and sometimes multiple columns of arches for a single bridge, steel architecture allows for a long single span to be covered with one arch.

Arches of the Foot

By now, almost everyone has heard about arches in relation to the foot. Whether you’re talking about arch support or flat feet, the concept of the arch is widely known. What you may not know is that the foot has three distinct arches, which are shown below.

One of the reasons Da Vinci was so mesmerized by the human foot is because our foot arches work much the same magic as arches do in bridge construction. While it’s phenomenal that we can exert hundreds (or even thousands) of pounds of compressive force on a foot that has a relatively small surface area, it becomes more understandable after learning about arches. Similar to a Roman concrete bridge, our arches also have keystones, only instead they are made up of bone.

 

Refer to the picture above to locate the keystones for each arch. In the anterior transverse arch, the keystone is the intermediate cuneiform. In the lateral longitudinal and medial longitudinal arches, the keystones are the cuboid and talus, respectively. As these keystone bones are compressed during everyday activity and exercise, the vertical compressive force is transferred horizontally along the arches and is distributed to the ground. Just like a bridge arch, compressive force on the keystone bones will help to reduce shear and torsion forces on the whole structure (the foot and ankle).

Cushioned Soles

Knowing what you now know about arches, go back up to the diagram of the arch at the top of the post and imagine each abutment is resting on top of a Godzilla sized air mattress. That is a surefire way to take an ingeniously designed support structure and render it immediately unstable. The second you place an arch on a giant marshmallow (running shoes), the stability and strength is severely compromised.

Your response might be that cushioned heels allow us to run on pavement without as much jarring force as we would experience barefoot or in flats. Actually, the opposite is true. When you run in cushioned running shoes, heel striking becomes the norm since there is no pain associated with it due to the shoes. However, this is not the natural way we were designed to run and use our foot arches. The results of this Harvard study show a significantly steeper acceleration of impact force from heel striking than from striking with the mid or forefoot. There’s no question that heel striking is the wrong way to run and puts a great deal of stress on ankles, shins, and knees. If you have any doubts, do a little experiment. Take your shoes off and gently run in place on a hardwood floor. Without thinking, you’ll immediately start landing softly on the mid and forefoot, taking advantage of your arches. You’ll have to force yourself to land on your heels, which will be a much more uncomfortable experience.

Arch Support

Now let’s consider arch supports. First off, realize that there isn’t a single arch structure in the world that requires support. The arch derives its strength from the fact that it is unsupported by scaffolding and can compress and become more stable. Now also consider that we are not made of lifeless stone, but of living tissue that must grow and be used constantly in order to remain strong. If you or anyone you know has ever broken a bone, you probably have some experience with joint or limb support, also known as a cast or a brace. What happens after wearing one of these for a while? Muscle, soft tissue, and bone atrophies to the point that it is noticeably weaker and smaller than the unbraced limb. If you have fancy shoes with arch support or custom orthotics, you’re effectively casting your feet every single day. It’s no surprise that there is such an abundance of foot problems in our society today. Our species has thrived for millions of years without the need for constant artificial support in any part of our body.

Performance and Health = Uninhibited Ground Contact

You might be wearing cushioned shoes because ‘that’s what everyone does’ and ‘you’ve done it forever’. You may also think (thanks in no small part to the brilliance of marketing) that all of the professional and elite runners wear cushioned shoes. Would it surprise to you to find out that hardly a single thing has changed in performance shoe design over the past 75 years? Below is the Adidas shoe that Emil Zatopek used to win the 5,000 and 10,000 meter races in the 1952 Olympics. The second picture is the most recent performance track flat designed by Nike for professional track athletes.

Other than the price, the marketing, and the color scheme, nothing has changed. The reason for this is the simple fact that effective and high performance running is done best when there is as little material between foot and ground as possible. Going back to the arch, this makes complete sense. If you consider that the bones and muscle fascia at the ends of the foot act similar to abutments in an arch, the most strength, power, and stability will be derived from having those abutments connected to the ground with as little interference as possible. This is why powerlifters typically deadlift in ballet slippers and gymnasts perform barefoot.

While cushioned shoes will certainly inhibit running performance and expression of strength in the gym, the main problems with them is that they promote poor running mechanics and don’t allow the feet to strengthen in a natural way. First off, the vast majority of people run incorrectly already due to these shoes. And even for those that do run with a correct midfoot strike, it’s very easy to get lazy with cushioned soles and fall into heel striking. It’s like using the bumper lanes at the bowling alley. You may be knocking pins down and having fun, but you’re still doing things the wrong way and using an artificial crutch.

Transitioning to Minimalist Shoes

In order to learn how to run correctly and get the most out of lifting in the gym, you’ll be best served by finding a pair of minimalist shoes and getting used to them. While Vibram Five Fingers are all the rage right now, I found them difficult to get in and out of as well as impractical and smelly since you can’t wear regular socks with them. My number 1 recommendation would be the New Balance Minimus trail shoe. They have a nice wide forefoot to allow you to spread the toes, can be worn with our without socks, are incredibly sturdy, and have just enough cushion in the small heel nubs to make the transition from cushioned shoes fairly painless. I’m going to do a full review of them soon on the blog.

Beyond the Minimus, the Merrell Trail Glove, Vivobarefoot Evo, and Innov8 Bare-XF are really good options. When switching, take it slow and let your ankles, feet, and Achilles and other soft tissue adapt. Try running on grass or a track for a while and really be conscious of midfoot striking. You’ll probably notice that your strides will get shorter and you’ll feel like you’re gliding in a straight line like on a conveyor belt rather than in a jerky up and down sort of way. Eventually, it’s even fun to experiment running on grass barefoot. Not only will this improve your stride, but tactile contact between your feet and the ground will enhance your stability and coordination.

18th Jan2012

DIY Tire Sled

by Tom

If you have some space in or around your gym like we do here at Fort Mason, a sled can be a very valuable conditioning tool as part of circuits or as a nice finisher to a weight training session. If you have some cash lying around, I’d recommend the versatile prowler from Elite FTS or the affordable power sled from Muscle Driver. Since I eventually want two (or even three) sleds in order to accommodate larger groups and keep rest time shorter, I decided to make one on my own to keep the cost down. Here is the material list and how I went about building it.

Materials

I picked up a couple of tires at the local Pick N Pull. For a used tire with a 13-14 inch hole sold as a single, you shouldn’t have to pay more than $16 for each one. Regardless of how big the tire itself is, I’d recommend sticking with one that has less than a 15 inch hole. In order to add weight to the tire later, we’re going to drop standard 45lb or bumper plates into the tire and you want them to rest securely in there. Plates are about 17 inches wide, so if you buy a large tire with a 17 inch hole, the plate will just fall through and drag on the ground. Not good.

When looking through the tires, try to find one with very hard, sturdy tread. If the tread is bald or thin, it will provide a less stable base to secure the handle and tow rope. The sturdier the tread, the longer the rubber will hold out after being pulled on hundreds of times. I bought Michelin X Radials, which have a long tread life compared to most other tires.

These are all the necessary materials and cost of each

  • 14 inch used Michelin X Radial Tire – Pick N Pull $16.00
  • Power drill with a phillips head bit
  • Door pull handle with 4 screw anchor points – Home Depot $3.70
  • Length of 2×4 just long enough to accommodate pull handle
  • 4 count of 1.5 inch wood screws
  • 15 foot emergency car tow strap – Home Depot $16.50
  • Total Cost = $36.20

I could have cut down on the cost quite a bit by trying to find a cheap or even free strap, but the car tow strap was too cool to pass up. The locking hooks are heavily stitched into either side of the strap, the material is wide and comfortable for pulling, and the strap and hooks are rated for up to 5000 pounds.

Attaching the Pull Handle

I first considered attaching the pull handle directly to the tire using bolts, nuts, and washers. After thinking about the force that would be generated and the possibility of ripping the rubber, I settled on anchoring it to a 2×4 backing using wood screws. Since the 4 anchor screws are all essentially connected via the 2×4, there is a whole lot more stability. The hardest part is getting in the first screw. Place the handle lengthwise in the center of the tire like the picture above and get the first screw through the tire rubber. Then reach in with the 2×4 and go by feel where the screw should connect to the wood. Then drill in while pressing hard on the wood. Once the first screw is securely in, the other three are pretty easy.

Adding Weight

In order to add weight to the sled, you need to increase the diameter of the top of the tire to accommodate bumper plates. First, start by centering a bumper plate on top of the tire as shown below.

Make small pencil or chalk marks around the plate so you know how wide of a space you need to cut in order to make the plate fit. Stay about a quarter to a half inch outside these marks while you cut. To do the cutting, the best method is probably to use a drill to make a small hole then use a handheld jigsaw to make the cut all the way around the tire. I didn’t have a jigsaw, so I just used the blade on my leatherman skeletool, which did the job very quickly. Any serrated hunting knife will work just fine. After you’re done, there will be enough space to drop in plates.

My cut was by no means perfect, but going a little wider than necessary certainly won’t hurt you. It will give you a little more margin to set plates in there on top of each other. In hindsight, I’m going to do the cutting before attaching the pull handle the next time I make one of these. You can see in the picture above that the 2×4 anchor is much more visible and accessible after making the cut. Getting the first screw attached to the 2×4 would be much easier at this point than prior to the cut.

The Finishing Touches

Next, just attach the two tow rope hooks to the pull handle and you’re good to go. Here is the final product. It’s definitely a versatile and quality piece considering it only cost $35 to make. After a first test of a total of 50 sprints on blacktop, there is no visible wear on the bottom tread and the pull handle is just as secure as when it was built.

 

Use

The tire itself weighs a little over 20 pounds, so using it with a 25 pound plate turns it into a 50 pound sled. This was more than enough weight to gas us on repeats of 40yd sprints followed by a 40yd backwards pull to the starting line. If you wanted to load it up, the tire could probably hold about 4 45lb plates, making it a 200lb sled. Since the friction of the tire on asphalt is pretty substantial, there would probably never be a need for more than that. While the loop works well as a harness, you could easily detach one of the rope hooks and clip it to a standalone shoulder harness, which would allow the arms more freedom during sprinting. Another really cool use would be to take a cable rope or lat pulldown bar and clip it to one of the rope hooks to do straight arm overhead pulls of the sled. There would be less speed to it, but it would tax the entire body similar to a car push.

There are also other potential great uses like using it for hand over hand pulls if I attach it to a long manila rope. It could also easily be converted for farmer’s walks by detaching the tow rope and carrying it by the handle. Regardless of how you use it, it’s definitely a great addition to any gym with outdoor space.

 

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