28th Jul2014

The Joint by Joint Approach To Banish Knee, Back, and Shoulder Pain

by Tom

Knee, back, and shoulder pain has been an ever increasing problem in this country over the past few decades. From 1996 to 2006, there has been a 49% increase in the number of arthroscopic knee procedures performed in the United States, with the 2006 total at nearly 1 million surgeries. An outpatient ACL procedure including MRI’s, readings, and physical therapy will cost the system (patient + health care) about $30,000-$40,000 a pop. That’s a $40 million cost per year in outpatient knee surgeries alone assuming the numbers haven’t increased since 2006. And if you think that number is big, hold on tight for the cost of back care. Duke researchers estimated in 2006 that medical treatment of back pain costs our country $25 billion annually with another $25 billion lost to workers compensation costs and time away from work. Given these numbers, it’s no surprise that as of now 80% of all Americans will experience some type of back pain in their lives.

Orthopedic problems, coupled with the costs associated with the rise in obesity, represent a huge weight that is crushing our health care system. And I’m certainly a part of it since I accounted for three of those outpatient knee operations from 1996-2006. Not only are orthopedic procedures costly to the country, but they also press the pause button on your life. After you get past the period of missing work and being laid up in a drugged state on the couch for a few weeks, you must start the months (or years) long road back to recovery. It can be a depressing and frustrating experience, especially when you go through it multiple times. And as much as I might complain about the woes of knee problems, back pain is much more common and can be much more fickle. Fusion surgery is often unsuccessful and symptoms can persist for decades, limiting activity and causing daily pain that can materially change the way you experience life.

The best thing you can possibly do in the case of orthopedic issues is use preventative care. Just as eating healthy today will help prevent diabetes and metabolic syndrome down the road, taking a proactive approach to fixing your body now will save you many years of orthopedic pain down the road. Trying to gain a full understanding of how to maintain healthy joints can be daunting, but luckily there’s a simple approach outlined by strength coach Mike Boyle to make things a bit clearer.

The Joint by Joint Approach

Coach Boyle recently developed an excellent system of analyzing the movement of the body called the joint by joint approach. In this, Boyle discusses the different training needs and demands on the various joints in our body. As it turns out, our body has an elegant way of arranging itself in order to maximize performance and minimize risk of injury. The arrangement involves joints that alternately are built for mobility and stability as you move up the body, as shown below

  • Ankle – Mobility
  • Knee – Stability
  • Hip – Mobility
  • Lumbar (lower) Spine – Stability
  • Thoracic (upper) Spine – Mobility
  • Scapula (shoulder blade) – Stability
  • Glenohumeral (shoulder) – Mobility

Essentially, any joint that is built for a high level of injury free articulations and a large range of motion is a joint where you want mobility. With the hip, we have the capacity for abduction/adduction (taking the leg away from the body and bringing it back), internal/external rotation (the way you turn the leg out and point the toe in a triangle pose in yoga), and flexion/extension (bringing the knee up to the chest and lowering it back down). All of this motion is possible because the joint is a ball and socket design, very similar to the shoulder.

All three of these hip articulations can be combined into thousands of different movements, which become the cornerstone of any athletic pursuit. This is all normal and necessary motion for the hip in order to keep it healthy. The knee, on the other hand, is basically a hinge joint that is built only to flex and extend. Adduction/abduction or rotation of any kind places dangerous force on the joint that will land you in an orthopedist’s office and typically result in one of those 1 million knee procedures each year. Just as the knee is built for stability below the hip, the lumbar spine is built for stability above the hip. The lower back is safest and strongest in a small amount of extension, as shown below.

In this position, the bones and vertebral discs sit correctly on top of each other and do not experience any shear or torsion force that could damage them. However, any flexion of the lower back (rounding over) or excessive twisting can put the lumbar spine in a very compromised position that can result in acute or chronic injury. The big concept to understand here is that mobility in the hip allows for stability in the knee and lumbar spine. If your hips are tight and immobile, any type of movement you do in sport, lifting, or daily life will force you to compensate for that immobility by contorting your knees and lower back in an unsafe way. For this reason, anyone who says squatting or deadlifting hurts their knees and back is almost guaranteed to be an individual with tight hips. Being able to squat and deadlift while keeping the knees and low back in a strong, stable position is as much an expression as it is a developer of hip strength and mobility.

This concept of using mobility joints (hip/ankle) to protect stability joints (knee/lower back) continues to be applied in the upper body. Going from the lumbar spine to the thoracic spine, we see much more of a safe range of flexion, extension, and rotation in the upper back compared to the lower back. You can see a great example in this short video from Chris Mills, who runs Surf Strength Coach:

You can see how much rotational range of motion is possible with a healthy upper back. This exercise is a great way to warm up for rotational sports and an upper body lifting day. It will also give you a good kinesthetic sense of how to develop rotation in your upper back while leaving the lower back stable. Sitting atop and to the outside of the thoracic spine are the scapulae, the shoulder blades which need to be very stable in order to provide our shoulders (the glenohumeral joint) with a large amount of mobility.

The trade off for providing all of this mobility to the shoulder is that the scapulae rely mostly on muscle attachments and only have a single bony attachment to the rest of the body, which is through a ligament at the clavicle. The problem that develops is that these stabilizing muscles like the rotator cuff and trapezius often become some combination of weak and loose or tight and strong, throwing the normal function of the scapulae way out of whack. If the shoulder blades aren’t stabilized the right way, it can spell bad news for the shoulder considering all of the high force applications of the arm and shoulder, such as throwing a fastball, bench pressing, carrying a couch, or knocking somebody out in a fight. The importance of scapular stability is made pretty clear in the quote, “It doesn’t matter how big of a cannon you have if you’re shooting it out of a canoe.”

Long story short, the proper functioning of the upper body relies heavily on rotational mobility in the upper back and strong stabilization in the scapulae, which both allow for a healthy range of motion in the shoulder as well as a stable lower back.

Novak Djokovic: The Joint by Joint Approach in Motion

Coach Boyle makes a very strong case in his joint by joint approach that having the right mix of mobility and stability is crucial for athletic performance and joint health. His conclusions are borne out repeatedly when you look at the positioning of athletes and lifters who are able to consistently avoid injury despite the huge physical demands of their sport. Since I’m a big tennis fan, I’ve noticed lately how well Novak Djokovic exemplifies the concept of having both mobility and stability in the right places. Take a close look at the following pictures with the joint by joint approach in mind and see if you notice any patterns.

Let’s get one thing straight right off that bat: Novak is a freak. His flexibility and body control at high speed is as elite as you can get. Most of us would break a sweat and probably pop some soft tissue trying to get into those positions statically, much less on a full sprint during a tennis match. Despite the fact that we’ll probably never come close to Novak’s level of movement, that doesn’t mean we can’t learn a lot from his positioning.

If you look at all of the pictures and compare them with the joint by joint approach, you’ll notice that everything is spot on. Starting with the lower body, notice how similarly oriented his knees and lower back are in every picture despite very different body positions. These are the stability joints that best transfer force and protect against injury when they’re able to remain stable and resist excess motion. Contrast that with the positioning of his ankles and hips, which show a huge range of quality motion. The upper body is no different. The third picture shows some excellent detail of the rotation that’s possible in the upper back while maintaining a stable lower back. Additionally in that photo, you can see how Novak’s scapulae are locked down tight against his upper back, allowing his shoulders to move through a safe range of motion.

How Does This Apply to You?

Djokovic is an extreme example because most of us will never be in those positions, but the lesson is still the same. If Novak has better knee and lower back stability on a full sprint slide than you do simply getting off the couch, then we have a big problem. If you can’t go through your daily life while remaining stable in the knees, lower back, and scapulae, then you’ll have problems someday if you don’t already. The good news is that if you’re having issues with one of these joints, you probably have to look no further than the joint above or below it and realize you have some big mobility gaps to fill there.

How do you go about it? Well, a number of strategies are available and it’s a lot more complicated that just saying ‘lift weights and stretch’. I actually think this subject is so crucial to lifting, athletic performance, and overall joint health that I’ll be spending the next few months breaking down different pieces of it. In the next blog post, I’ll talk about the typical posture that most desk bound and sedentary people find themselves in, including some initial methods for gaining more mobility and stability in the right places. Stay tuned.

22nd Jul2014

Can You Do a Perfect Pushup?

by Tom

The pushup is one of those exercises that is often taken for granted in the fitness world. Like a bodyweight lunge, squat, or pullup, the pushup is a basic exercise that has been around forever and has been implemented in grade school physical education, bootcamp fitness, martial arts training, circuit training, and the military. In some or all of these implementations, the pushup is often done at high speed and high reps in a fatigued state while being mixed in among a circuit of other exercises. It also seems like such a simple movement that trainers fail to give any cues on how to do it properly. The truth is that the vast majority of pushups I see are done incorrectly and will lead to stagnation in the exercise as well as a number of problems down the road with the shoulder and elbow joints.

How to Perform a Proper Pushup

To get started, take a look at this video from Kelly Starrett and Carl Paoli from CrossFit San Francisco. Carl is a former gymnast and Kelly is a DPT (physical therapist) who has excellent training and intuition when it comes to how the human body should move correctly. They developed a series in the CrossFit Journal called ‘The Position’, which describes how the torso should be organized during the vast majority of athletic movements and fitness exercises. If some of their descriptions go over your head a bit, just keep watching and really look closely at Carl’s positioning during the pushup.

Some keys to focus on:

  • Rib Cage and Ab Tightness
    • The rib cage (chest) and abs need to be up and tightly locked in. When you’re in the starting plank position, picture pulling your navel and chest up tightly in unison towards the ceiling.
  • Elbows Close
    • The elbows should remain close to the torso throughout the movement. They should not fly out to the sides. One way to make this easier is to picture a clock face as you’re looking down at the ground below you. As you get in a pushup position, your left and right index fingers should be pointing at 11 and 1 on the clock, respectively. Most people will internally rotate their hands to the point where the index fingers are both pointing to 12 on the clock, which will exaggerate any elbow flaring.
  • Shoulder External Rotation
    • As they highlight again and again in the video, one of the big keys to stability is to externally rotate the shoulders during the entire motion. This will make the shoulder joint much more solid and keep it anchored as far back in the socket as possible. One way to cue this is to turn the elbow pits so they’re facing directly forwards at the top of each pushup. You can try this right now as you sit in your chair. First press your hands flat on your desk with your arms straight in a relaxed position. Your elbow pits will probably be facing each other. Now rotate them so they face the ceiling while keeping your palms flat. You should instantly feel your shoulders externally rotate and tighten up. This torque is what you need to remain stable during the pushup.
  • Vertical Forearm
    • As you descend into the pushup, keep the forearm as vertical as possible. This may feel strange at first since you’re probably used to the forearm being angled backwards. When you do it correctly, your torso will actually travel slightly forward as you descend and backward as you push yourself back up while posting on a vertical forearm. If you look at 3:23 – 3:27 in the video, you’ll see how Carl does this perfectly.
  • No Sagging the Low Back
    • At all times and especially on the push back up, keep the abs up and tight without letting the lower back sag. As you fatigue, the tendency to do this is nearly impossible to resist. For many people, you’ll see them do this on every rep. The reason this happens is that it’s simply easier to do a pushup when you let the stomach and low back sag. It lowers much of the body mass that’s being lifted, making it much easier to press out of the bottom. But it also puts your shoulder in a crappy position and lets your torso lose all tension, which will not do you any favors in the long run. The best cue to fix this problem is by squeezing the butt very hard throughout the entire set of pushups. Once you lose tension in the butt and the front abdominals, you’re guaranteed to sag.

Spotting Faults

I mentioned a few of the common faults when describing the key cues above, but the picture below is a good illustration of what good vs bad looks like.


The top picture comes from a Men’s Health article using a fitness model that is obviously lean and fit. The bottom picture is a still shot of Carl in about the same position in the video. After watching the video and reviewing the cues above, how many problems can you identify in the first picture compared to the second?

  • First off, her midline is sagging because the rib cage and abs are not tightly integrated and pulled toward the ceiling. It may look like she’s tight because she has a lean, flat stomach, but there is a significant arch in her lower back. Another good cue is imagining a straight line drawn from head to toe as indicated by the blue line in each picture. Except for the very bottom of the pushup, this line should be dead straight and run from the head through the shoulders, abs, and legs. In the first picture, her shoulders are too high and both her head and abs are lower than where they should be. Carl, on the other hand, has a nice neutral neck position, perfect shoulder position, and a tightly integrated torso that keeps the blue line running right along the exterior of his abs.
  • Her elbows are also flared, causing the elbow pits to face each other. By contrast, Carl’s elbow pits are facing forward, meaning he’s maintaining a very solid level of external rotation in his shoulders. This is a big reason why his shoulder position is right on the blue line, whereas the fitness model’s shoulders are loose and elevated.
  • One last fault is her tilted forearm. Unlike Carl’s perfectly vertical forearm, hers is angled backwards. This will reduce stability and put more stress on the joint, not to mention involving the triceps much less effectively in the movement. Notice that forward body lean that Carl has that we talked about before. Feeling your torso move forward slightly on the way down will help you post up on that vertical forearm, whereas the fitness model is kind of slouching into her pushup without inclining forward.


The fact is that a lot of people will need to swallow their egos when learning how to do these correctly. The range of motion is greater to get to the floor with the tightly tucked chest not to mention the difficulty of doing high reps without sagging the abs and lower back. If your best effort produces pushups like the fitness model in the above picture, you’re better off going to a progression and working your way up the right way.

  • Elevated Hand Position
    • By placing your hands on a box, a bench, or a desk, the effective load of the pushup will be greatly reduced. All of the exact same cues apply except the movement is a little bit easier. Work up to 3-5 sets of 10 every time you train and really work on doing the movement correctly. If your abs are too weak to stay tight and integrated with the chest on regular pushups, you’ll get a nice ab workout by really fighting to maintain position during these sets. Slowly work your way down to the floor over the course of a few weeks or months depending on your fitness level.
  • Ring Pushups
    • Once you can do very solid sets of 15-20 on the floor, set up a pair of rings or TRX straps and work up to sets of 15-20. These will be much more difficult due to the stabilization required throughout the movement. Again, the same cues apply. Solid body tension will be even more important using an unstable piece of equipment like this. You can use these as an easier progression as well by setting the rings very high and keeping the feet on the floor.
  • Weighted Pushups
    • In addition to increasing the difficulty with ring pushups, you can also have a partner stack weight plates on your back during regular floor pushups.
  • Handstand Pushup Progression
    • Once controlled pushups on the floor and rings are mastered, you can continue to elevate the difficulty by working towards a handstand pushup. This is where a proper pushup progression is crucial. You can start with knees elevated on a box and then progress to feet on a box. Like the picture below, remember all your cues of a tightly integrated midline, external rotation in the shoulders, and a vertical forearm.

The basic pushup is an excellent upper body conditioning exercise that can be turned into a solid strength builder depending on how far you go with your progression. They key is to simply start the right way as Kelly and Carl describe in the video. Not only will this improve your pushups over time, but it will do a ton for your shoulder health over the course of your life.

29th Jan2013

Bridge Rotations for Full Body Mobility

by Tom

It’s no secret that stretching and mobility work is not all that thrilling. Kelly over at MobilityWOD makes it about as interesting as it can possibly get and I still catch myself wanting to skip it in favor of the fun stuff on occasion. That’s why I love mobility work that is more performance and skill oriented. If it’s something that’s progressive and skillful, there’s more chance I’ll enjoy doing it and keep it up over time. A good example of this is the Cuban Rotation, a shoulder mobility exercise you can conceivably work up to 50% of your bodyweight over time. Along similar lines, another excellent full body mobility tool that involves some skill and coordination are bridge rotations.

Why YOU Need to do Bridging Work

Before I talk about some of the variations, I want to hammer home why bridging can be so beneficial. Bridging…

  • Brings You Into Balance – Most of us sit hunched over all day. The upper back, glutes, and hamstrings are long and loose while the shoulders, chest, stomach, hip flexors, and quads are short and tight. When you’re in a nice back bridge,  all of this is reversed.
  • Is Comprehensive – While you may think certain parts of your body are holding you back from mobility, you won’t really know until you try something that challenges everything at once. A full bridge and bridge rotations put demands on the ankles, calves, quads, hip flexors, glutes, abs, back, shoulders, and arms for mobility and flexibility. Yeah..pretty much the whole body. If one area is lacking, you’ll figure it out pretty quickly.
  • Is Progressive – Like I mentioned, mobility work is more fun when it involves skill and progression over time. That said, let’s get to some variations…

Basic Bridging


Before we try to do anything crazy, let’s talk about basic bridging. Single and double leg glute bridges have been used by physical therapists and trainers for a while now. They’re a solid tool for activating weak glutes and extending the hip, but they don’t offer a ton in terms of mobility. Check out some basic single leg bridging in this video. If you’re inflexible or have never tried these before, give them a go. Otherwise…next section.

Back Bridge


Moving from the basic glute bridge to the back bridge brings in a whole new world of mobility challenges. While a lot of folks might think it’s just their upper back and shoulders that are holding them back, many times it can be incredibly tight pecs, abs, ribs, calves, quads, and hip flexors that leave you unable to push up into a perfect bridge like the picture above. Here is short and simple tutorial from Al Kavadlo on how to work up to the back bridge:


Bridge Rotations

Once you’ve mastered the ability to move easily in and out of a back bridge on the floor, you can take your dynamic mobility to the next level by working on bridge rotations. These can be very challenging on the ankles, knees, hips, and the upper back, but they’re pretty cool and open up some new doors as far as sequences of movement. Check out this short video from Ido Portal demonstrating some beginner rotations into bridge:

In the following video, one of Ido’s students Steve Atlas demonstrates some more higher level bridge rotations.

As you can see, there are some very impressive demands on the toes, ankles, shoulders, and upper back. Making it look that graceful and easy says a lot about the quality of Steve and Ido’s movement. Always remember that this quality is what we’re after. Anyone can plop down and do 1000 glute bridges in an hour, but moving with grace into a low bridge rotation is a rare thing to see outside of acrobatics, gymnastics, and capoeira. And as you work towards it, you’ll be more pain free and muscularly balanced. It also looks freaking cool. Good luck with it my friends!

19th Jan2013

The Cuban Rotation for Shoulder Health

by Tom


In my post about Getting Started With Mobility, I touched on the concepts of shoulder internal and external rotation. In our quest to gain a solid level of badassery at full body, high intensity exercise (aka CrossFit, bootcamp, TRX classes, etc), shoulder rotation is something with which you should get very well acquainted. Unless you’ve addressed it specifically, the odds are you have internally rotated shoulders and less than stellar range of motion. This happens due to…

  • Sitting all day in a car or at a desk
  • Bench pressing too often
  • Playing throwing and/or overhead sports
  • Not balancing chest and back workouts
  • Compensating for a lack of mobility in other areas like the upper back and hips
  • Too many pullups with an already internally rotated shoulder (the lats internally rotate the upper arm)

Say you go into a CrossFit program while prone to many of the bullet points above. What you’ll end up doing is a TON of volume that will hammer your already tight internal rotators during pushups, dips, muscle ups, pullups, kettlebell swings, and the rowing machine. Because of a concept called reciprocal inhibition, your strong, tight internal rotators are also inhibiting the external rotators from doing their job in addition to getting so bunched up that you lose range of motion internally as well as externally. Put all this together and you’ll have some insanely inflamed shoulders, not to mention the hurt you’ll put on the elbows and wrists from having to pick up the slack for a poorly functioning shoulder.

Enter The Cuban Rotation

It might sound like a Communist military maneuver, but it’s actually one of the best exercises you’ve probably never heard of. In fact, I have no clue where the name came from, but word is that Charles Poliquin was one of the first to do it. It’s a simple movement where the humerus (upper arm) stays abducted horizontally from the body throughout the entire exercise, with the shoulder going from fully internally rotated to fully externally rotated and back again (watch video below). This is an excellent diagnostic tool and strength builder for shoulder internal and external rotation. One of few true external rotation exercises in CrossFit is the snatch and I’d take a guess that about 90% of people aren’t doing it with their shoulder in the correct position. Most folks are so tight in the internal rotators that they can’t fully externally rotate during the turnover of the snatch which makes the movement a poor trainer of the external rotators, not to mention a risk of injury.

So to counteract all of the internal rotation work and undo some of the prior imbalances to the shoulder, the cuban rotation is one of THE BEST exercises you can put in your program. It’s hasn’t gotten much love in mainstream fitness since it’s always been treated more like a corrective exercise, but some folks like Poliquin and Ido Portal see it as a legitimate strength exercise. Their elite standard is to build up to 50% of bodyweight for a single controlled rep. For me, that would equate to a 110lb barbell or two 55lb dumbbells.

Here is a great video from Dr. Clay Hyght describing the merits and performance of the cuban rotation.


One of the great things about this exercise is the ability to control the shoulder position from full internal rotation all the way to full external rotation. I’d encourage you to also try this up against a wall and to try and keep your shoulders back in the socket against the wall throughout the entire movement. Watch any of Kelly Starrett’s videos on internal rotation and you’ll notice how one of the big goals is to have full range while the shoulder is back ‘on the shelf’.

‘Grease’ The Rotators and Boost Performance

When you think about even the simplest movements like an overhead press or pullup, there is some very dynamic shoulder movement going on under load. At the bottom of the press, you need very good internal rotation to keep the shoulders back in the socket in a strong position. As you press up, this transitions to a strong externally rotated, ‘active’ shoulder as you keep the bar as close to the center of mass as possible. After doing cubans for a while in my warm ups, I noticed an IMMEDIATE boost to my pressing. I could keep my body line straighter and make fewer sacrifices in my torso position while also keeping the bar closer to my center of mass. By ‘greasing’ this rotator range of motion with cuban rotations, it’s like giving your shoulders an oil change. The press is smoother, stronger, and more efficient. With each quarter inch back in the socket and 10 pounds that you add to your cuban rotation as you continue to train it, you’ll see and feel a bump in your performance on pullups, presses, rowing, and olympic lifts.

Altering Yourself to Downstream Mobility Problems

Another great aspect of the cuban rotation is that it alerts you to other tightness  and clues you into some sacrifices in positioning that you may not have noticed. When I work hard to keep the shoulders back during a full range cuban, I get pretty hot in the tricep right near the inside of the elbow. This is a surefire sign of general problems like a valgus elbow, a rounded upper back, and poor external rotation in the shoulder. The tricep essentially is forced to carry the load in place of poorly performing shoulders and upper back on exercises like pullups and pushups (which means hundreds of poor reps since we do so many of these). Once alerted to a downstream effect like this, you can start working the problem there as well. Simply lie on the floor facedown with the shoulder up in flexion and flex your bicep. Then press your tricep down on a lacrosse ball on the floor right where it meets the elbow and go to town pancaking the tissue to try and loosen  things up.

Training the Cuban Rotation

You can honestly do this every single day as a bodyweight exercise. And should. Even if you’re in your office, go walk up to the wall and do a few sets with no weight 3-4 times a day. Do it in warmups, between sets, or even while lying on a foam roller or lacrosse ball peanut. When doing it weighted while standing, start light and go slow. Let your rotators acclimate slowly to the increased load. Greasing the rotators = better performance, more fun, and fewer injuries. And that’s what it’s all about.

18th Jan2013

Getting Started With Mobility: The Low Hanging Fruit

by Tom

If we take one big step back and look at working out, exercise can be a funny thing. It’s about getting work done and completing tasks. Reps, sets, supersets, circuits, etc. We have clear definitions for these tasks: chin over bar, chest to the ground, hip crease below the knee, arms locked out, etc. These definitions don’t really offer any useful cues on form, however. That’s why we have trainers who yell things like: arch the low back, bring the shoulder blades together, press with active shoulders, weight on the heels, and others. These cues dive a little deeper, but they don’t tell us what we really need to know, especially if your body needs a little fixing. To really take an active approach to correcting imbalances and boosting your fitness along the way, you need to invest some time in a little education.

I’ll say it right off the bat…if you want to learn everything you’ll ever need to know about the way the body should move while you’re working out, go watch every video Kelly Starrett has ever made at MobilityWOD. Whether it takes you a month or a year to watch them all and let the info sink in, it’s something that’s more important to your long term health than just about anything besides diet and sleep. And the videos are all FREE. A complete no brainer. Go do it.

At first, you’ll be overwhelmed by the terminology and get a little lost. Luckily Kelly is one of the most entertaining people on the internet and has managed to make anatomy and kinesiology  as interesting and relevant as Monday Night Football. You gotta stick with it. After a few dozen videos, patterns will start to materialize and you’ll begin to remember things that you can apply in the gym. For now, I’m going to give you some of the quick hits that I think are THE most crucial starting points for most people looking to get serious about high intensity, full body training…

Shoulder Internal Rotation & Shoulder Extension


Put your arm out in front of you like you’re going to arm wrestle someone. Now pretend you’re winning and pin the imaginary arm. What your shoulder is doing is internally rotating. Do the opposite and you’re externally rotating. Now pretend you’re on the outside rail of a cruise ship and you’re leaning towards the water with your arms straight back behind you holding the rail. Here your shoulder is in full extension. The shoulder in full flexion is when your arms are straight up in the air and your biceps are by your ears.

Over the past year, I’ve come to the realization that my very poor internal rotation and extension in the shoulder are two of the biggest limitations on my upper body performance. Think about these positions: bottom of the overhead press, top of the pullup, 2nd and 3rd pull of the clean, bottom of the dip, and even arm position during the back squat. If you don’t have squeaky clean internal rotation and extension in the shoulder, you’re leaving something on the table during all of these exercises.

If you watch enough of the MobilityWod videos, you’ll start to catch that Kelly hammers on shoulder IR and extension and highlights it as a huge barrier to performance. He also mentions that overhead athletes like volleyball players and kayak paddlers like him are prone to it. I know from experience playing tennis, golf, baseball, and swimming that overhead work can trash shoulder function if you’re not careful.

To get you started here’s a great MWod titled The Biggest Shoulder Problem of Them All (gee, you think missing IR is a big deal?).

Thoracic Spine Extension


This is another biggie that Kelly makes a point of emphasis. Losing mobility in the upper back (thoracic spine) is something we are all prone to given modern living. T spine extension happens when you pull your shoulder blades together and flatten the upper back. T spine flexion is when you pull the shoulders forward and let the upper back round. One thing that’s key to realize is that there is a ton going on in the upper back. Fixing yourself is not a matter of simply pulling your shoulder blades together and going on your merry way. Everything feeds in back there. Traps, rib muscles, rhomboids, rotator cuff, the deltoids, and the neck. Even tight pecs on the front side can have a significant impact on the tightness of the upper back (and often do).

This MWOD with the plate pinned on the chest is amazing for both the upper back and shoulders. Try it out. But realize this is not an easy fix. Mobilizing the upper back is a big and worthwhile project.

Scapular Mobility & Control


Your scapulae (shoulder blades) are arguably the the most important bones in your body for movement. They have 17 different muscle attachments and sit delicately across the top of the upper back (another reason thoracic mobility is so crucial). When it comes to the upper body, the scapulae run the show. These small, arrow shaped bones are the reason we have a wide range of movement, strength, and coordination in our shoulders and arms. The scaps can slide and glide to allow us to reach for something, but also lock down tight so we can kick up into a strong handstand. They are a pretty phenomenal piece of standard equipment in the human body. Due to their large number of muscle attachments, it’s very common for imbalances to occur in the scapulae. They are commonly rendered less functional by tightness in the pecs, shoulders, lats, and upper traps, and weakness in the external rotators and lower traps.

Kelly spends a lot of time in his videos focusing on both the scaps and t spine in conjunction. Here’s another good MWod to get you started on mobilizing the scaps.

How To Apply These Mobilizations

I do a version of shoulder IR/Extension, T spine Extension, and Scap mobility during EVERY warm up and also between a lot of my work sets. They are limiting factors for me and I can see visible improvement in both my body alignment and my performance if I do them consistently during a workout session. If you have really tight pecs and anterior deltoids, I’d also recommend a simple doorway pec stretch or pec stretch with a band. Really get in there and hunt around for tightness. The more you open up the pecs and delts, the easier it will be to keep the t spine extended and to keep the shoulders back during IR/Extension work.

There is certainly a ton more to learn and we haven’t even gotten to the hips, but gaining a good understanding of the three sections I listed above will get you well on your way.

07th Nov2012

Reverse Pyramid Training

by Tom

When it comes down to it, a ton of different programs can be effective, so it’s important to find one that works for you. In the end, never lose sight of the goal…which is to add reps and add weight. One of the simplest, most effective, and most versatile ways to do this is Reverse Pyramid Training. I first read about it on Martin Berkhan’s Leangains site.

In the first workout I posted, I told you to establish good sets of 8 in the deadlift, bench, and barbell row. These are henceforth known as ‘top sets’ for each exercise. The top set is the hardest set of an exercise during that particular workout. In the Reverse Pyramid style, you’ll notice the top set is done immediately (after warming up thoroughly). This can be counterintuitive to most people…and it certainly was to me wen I first read about it. From lifting in high school and reading health magazines, we’re used to the conventional style of starting with light weight and high reps and ‘pyramiding’ up to heavier weight and low reps. Conversely, reverse pyramiding is where you warm up just enough to be ready to handle the biggest weights, but not so much that you tax yourself unnecessarily. That allows for all of your focus and energy to go into one big top set to try and bump up your personal record. The following sets reverse pyramid down to lighter weight and higher reps, which are still very taxing and useful but psychologically feel easier since the weight is lighter than the first set.

It was a little mind blowing when I first read this on Martin’s site because it actually makes a ton of sense. Then I tried it for a while and it really does work well. There is something really powerful about doing a very hard set of 8 squats at a heavy weight and then dropping the weight 10% and then doing a set of 10 for your second set. While still difficult, that second set is MUCH easier than if you had pyramided upwards from a lighter weight. This makes for an incredibly useful second work set. Then for the third set, drop 10% again for a set of 12-14 you’ll have gotten in some very impressive work.

Reverse pyramid training is also a whole lot of fun when it comes to progression. Week after week, you can channel your energy into that single top set for each exercise and try to increase the weight. You also have a ton of flexibility with how you handle your volume. Say last week, you hit 275×8 in the squat fairly easily and then did your backoff sets of 10 and 14 and really went hard on those. Then you come in this week and make 280×8 but only barely. At this point, you could do your second set of 10 and then decide to ditch the third set in order to recover better for the following week.

Another method to keep progression going when you stagnate is to switch up rep ranges for a given weight. If you’re really grinding to a halt on sets of 8 at a particular weight, use that weight plus about 5 pounds and do sets of 6 for your top set from now on. This will give you some runway to build a little reserve and make progress on sets of 6 for a few months before switching it up.

18th Jan2012

DIY Tire Sled

by Tom

If you have some space in or around your gym like we do here at Fort Mason, a sled can be a very valuable conditioning tool as part of circuits or as a nice finisher to a weight training session. If you have some cash lying around, I’d recommend the versatile prowler from Elite FTS or the affordable power sled from Muscle Driver. Since I eventually want two (or even three) sleds in order to accommodate larger groups and keep rest time shorter, I decided to make one on my own to keep the cost down. Here is the material list and how I went about building it.


I picked up a couple of tires at the local Pick N Pull. For a used tire with a 13-14 inch hole sold as a single, you shouldn’t have to pay more than $16 for each one. Regardless of how big the tire itself is, I’d recommend sticking with one that has less than a 15 inch hole. In order to add weight to the tire later, we’re going to drop standard 45lb or bumper plates into the tire and you want them to rest securely in there. Plates are about 17 inches wide, so if you buy a large tire with a 17 inch hole, the plate will just fall through and drag on the ground. Not good.

When looking through the tires, try to find one with very hard, sturdy tread. If the tread is bald or thin, it will provide a less stable base to secure the handle and tow rope. The sturdier the tread, the longer the rubber will hold out after being pulled on hundreds of times. I bought Michelin X Radials, which have a long tread life compared to most other tires.

These are all the necessary materials and cost of each

  • 14 inch used Michelin X Radial Tire – Pick N Pull $16.00
  • Power drill with a phillips head bit
  • Door pull handle with 4 screw anchor points – Home Depot $3.70
  • Length of 2×4 just long enough to accommodate pull handle
  • 4 count of 1.5 inch wood screws
  • 15 foot emergency car tow strap – Home Depot $16.50
  • Total Cost = $36.20

I could have cut down on the cost quite a bit by trying to find a cheap or even free strap, but the car tow strap was too cool to pass up. The locking hooks are heavily stitched into either side of the strap, the material is wide and comfortable for pulling, and the strap and hooks are rated for up to 5000 pounds.

Attaching the Pull Handle

I first considered attaching the pull handle directly to the tire using bolts, nuts, and washers. After thinking about the force that would be generated and the possibility of ripping the rubber, I settled on anchoring it to a 2×4 backing using wood screws. Since the 4 anchor screws are all essentially connected via the 2×4, there is a whole lot more stability. The hardest part is getting in the first screw. Place the handle lengthwise in the center of the tire like the picture above and get the first screw through the tire rubber. Then reach in with the 2×4 and go by feel where the screw should connect to the wood. Then drill in while pressing hard on the wood. Once the first screw is securely in, the other three are pretty easy.

Adding Weight

In order to add weight to the sled, you need to increase the diameter of the top of the tire to accommodate bumper plates. First, start by centering a bumper plate on top of the tire as shown below.

Make small pencil or chalk marks around the plate so you know how wide of a space you need to cut in order to make the plate fit. Stay about a quarter to a half inch outside these marks while you cut. To do the cutting, the best method is probably to use a drill to make a small hole then use a handheld jigsaw to make the cut all the way around the tire. I didn’t have a jigsaw, so I just used the blade on my leatherman skeletool, which did the job very quickly. Any serrated hunting knife will work just fine. After you’re done, there will be enough space to drop in plates.

My cut was by no means perfect, but going a little wider than necessary certainly won’t hurt you. It will give you a little more margin to set plates in there on top of each other. In hindsight, I’m going to do the cutting before attaching the pull handle the next time I make one of these. You can see in the picture above that the 2×4 anchor is much more visible and accessible after making the cut. Getting the first screw attached to the 2×4 would be much easier at this point than prior to the cut.

The Finishing Touches

Next, just attach the two tow rope hooks to the pull handle and you’re good to go. Here is the final product. It’s definitely a versatile and quality piece considering it only cost $35 to make. After a first test of a total of 50 sprints on blacktop, there is no visible wear on the bottom tread and the pull handle is just as secure as when it was built.



The tire itself weighs a little over 20 pounds, so using it with a 25 pound plate turns it into a 50 pound sled. This was more than enough weight to gas us on repeats of 40yd sprints followed by a 40yd backwards pull to the starting line. If you wanted to load it up, the tire could probably hold about 4 45lb plates, making it a 200lb sled. Since the friction of the tire on asphalt is pretty substantial, there would probably never be a need for more than that. While the loop works well as a harness, you could easily detach one of the rope hooks and clip it to a standalone shoulder harness, which would allow the arms more freedom during sprinting. Another really cool use would be to take a cable rope or lat pulldown bar and clip it to one of the rope hooks to do straight arm overhead pulls of the sled. There would be less speed to it, but it would tax the entire body similar to a car push.

There are also other potential great uses like using it for hand over hand pulls if I attach it to a long manila rope. It could also easily be converted for farmer’s walks by detaching the tow rope and carrying it by the handle. Regardless of how you use it, it’s definitely a great addition to any gym with outdoor space.


05th Jan2011

Tweaking the Litvinov

by Tom


Sergey Litvinov, the front squatting machine

Anyone who’s been around the block in the strength and conditioning game knows that nothing works forever. Depending on the situation, a ‘great’ program can run one athlete into the ground while a ‘bad’ program will allow a different athlete to see gains. One of my favorite quotes on this subject is from Dan John: “Everything works…for six weeks.” I used to be slightly fanatical about fitness programs, getting overly immersed in the benefits of a program and telling myself I would ‘do this one forever’. This fanatical attachment to one program caused me to look down on other programs much as it goes in religion and politics. Thankfully I’ve passed through that stage in my life where I fall in love with programs, which was eerily similar to my Ayn Rand phase post college.

That prefaced, I now always keep my eyes peeled for any program, workout, or exercise that can add a little spice to my training. I came across the Litvinov Workout about a year ago and have played with it sporadically ever since. For starters, have a look at this Dan John article on the Litvinov. Dan is the one who came up with the name after hearing about hammer thrower Sergey Litvinov performing repeats of 8 reps of 405 in the front squat followed by a 75 meter sprint. The strict interpretation of the Litvinov per Dan John is:

  • Exercise 1 – Heavy compound barbell exercise (back squat, front squat, power clean, power snatch, or overhead squat)
  • Exercise 2 – Sprint of between 50 and 400 meters
  • Rest 3-5 minutes
  • Repeat 2 more times

In the article, Dan discusses methods for adjusting the sprint protocol by either pushing a sled or doing hill sprints.  I’ve done the hill sprint version with front squats. The total time spent actually working out in that session is about 5 minutes, yet it’s one of the most painful things I’ve ever done.  I’ve taken to bastardizing the protocol and generalizing it to fit the following structure:

  • Exercise 1 -Heavy and Intense for 3-8 reps
  • Exercise 2 – Metabolically challenging work between 20 and 60 seconds
  • Rest for 3-5 minutes
  • Repeat 4 or 5 times

I’m a firm believer that in the ideal situation, you’d use barbell exercises for exercise 1.  However, sometimes you lack the equipment and/or clients lack the flexibility to perform a barbell movement for reps. For novice clients, I really like using a heavy kettlebell and doing deep goblet squats for sets of 10-12 on the first lift. For exercise 2, I’ve gone pretty far afield of the original protocol. Working out in a gym without access to a good area to sprint, the rowing machine is a surefire ass kicker in this situation. Doing 8 heavy reps on the back squat, racking the bar, and immediately going for a PR in the 250m row will leave you in a puddle after 4 total sets. I’ve also experimented with repetition work as well.  I’ve even played around with using 3 exercises instead of 2.  Here are some examples of workouts I’ve done or programmed using this template:

  • Back Squat, 8 Reps / 250m Row / 4 Rounds Total
  • Power Clean, 3 Reps / 250m Row / Ab Wheel Rollouts, 5 Reps / 4 Rounds Total
  • Box Squat, 8 Reps / Max Ring Pushups / Kettlebell Swings, 25 Reps / 4 Rounds Total
  • Front Squat, 8 Reps / Max Pullups / Kettlebell Swings, 20 Reps / 4 Rounds Total
  • Overhead Press, 8 Reps / Farmer’s Walk, 75 yards / 4 Rounds Total

I’ve put people through CrossFit workouts, EDT, and other HIIT workouts, and I’ve honestly never seen anything more soul crushing than these Litvinovs. There is something incredibly powerful about hitting a very heavy lift for reps and following it immediately with metabolically challenging work. The combination of the central nervous system (CNS) hit from the intense work and the cardiovascular and muscular endurance requirements of the second exercise just plain lays you out flat.  For my money, this is one of the ideal ways to burn body fat and build muscle in a safe, time efficient manner.  One interesting observation I’ve found when doing the same Litvinov with both men and women is that guys are borderline comatose on the floor after the workout while the girls occasionally break a sweat. This is a great example of how the power of this stimulus is in the loading. If ladies can’t lift enough to effectively challenge their CNS in exercise 1, the effect of the workout is significantly less.  The key here is to get people flexible and technically sound enough to be able to perform a very heavy lift in exercise 1. Once that is accomplished, this protocol can provide immense benefit.

One of my favorites aspects of this protocol is the inverse relationship between fatigue and the difficulty of the exercise. You’re always most fresh when you’re hitting the heavy, skill-intensive barbell lift and more fatigued when you get to the less skill-dependent metabolic work like farmer’s walks or kettlebell swings.  This highlights my one big problem with CrossFit.  The program uses great exercises and is motivational as all hell, but I just can’t get on board with doing heavy barbell lifting under fatigue, especially for novices. Most people relatively new to training have difficulty with barbell exercises when they’re fully rested, much less in the middle of a workout when they can barely stand up.  The Litvinov, much like EDT, allows you to manage this fatigue and effectively work strength and conditioning into the same circuit without sacrificing form or weight on the bar.

For more on the Litvinov, check out Keith’s recent post on Theory to Practice. Joe DeFranco has also had great success using a Litvinov-type approach with football players.

10th Nov2010

25 Reps

by Tom


Bill Starr – A pioneer of 5×5 training

If you aren’t aware, there’s an excellent S&C blog written by Keith Norris called Theory to Practice. The other day I found a January 2009 post at TTP discussing two articles written by Chad Waterbury for T Nation. You typically have to wade through a lot garbage at T Nation, but there are some gems to be found by Dan John, Mark Rippetoe, Chad Waterbury, Charles Poliquin, and others if you look hard enough.

This article in particular captured my attention immediately thanks to Chad’s respect for Bill Starr and the 5×5 method, a protocol Chad found success with early on for himself and his clients. He notes that many experienced lifters have done some version of a 5×5 at some point in their life. Whether it’s something like Starting Strength (5×3) or Starr’s method (5×5), 5 rep sets are the tool for the job. In most cases, hitting a challenging 5 rep set across should be done with around a 6RM weight, or 85% of 1RM. Chad puts an interesting spin on the holy grail of 5 reps per set, bringing up the idea that we should focus on a total rep number of 25 rather than sets of specific reps. So in contrast to a traditional 5×5, you could instead hit 6 reps for the first few sets, five for the third, then 4 reps in the final two sets. The point is there’s no special magic to 5 reps. 4 or 6 is essentially the same and if done in a certain way may give you more quality reps in each set. More on that in the next paragraph.

The concept of not clearly defining reps per set dovetails very well with the other Waterbury article that Keith links to in his post. In essence, Chad advises that you should manage your fatigue during strength training by stopping a set when you begin to slow down.  Once you start to slow, your larger motor units are beginning to crap out and you’ll be losing steam significantly from that point on.  And anyone who’s trained to failure at some point knows that trying to get in quality work sets after doing a set to failure is an exercise in futility. So once that bar speed starts to decrease, cut off the set, rest, and come back for more a few minutes later. Even if you have to do more sets, this will ensure each of your heavy reps is very high quality. This reminded me a lot of what I’ve heard often on podcasts from John Welbourn, the former NFL’er who started CrossFit Football. Welbourn mentions that he was only concerned with moving weight quickly since that’s the speed of gameplay on the football field. Not surprisingly, moving weights quickly is a tremendous developer of athleticism, muscle, and explosiveness as evidenced by olympic weightlifters and sprinters. The point here is to move FAST with heavy weights. When you can’t move fast anymore, stop the sets and prepare for the next one.

Putting the Concepts to Work

I put these two concepts to work in my training session this morning with good success. Today, the job was to do 25 quality reps each of the back squat and the weighted pullup. Here’s how it turned out:

  • Back Squat @ 80%1RM
    • 235x5x5
  • Weighted Pullup @ 70%1RM
    • 41lbs (4,4,3,3,3,3,3,2)
  • Rest between each set of each exercise was about 3 minutes

This was undoubtedly a quality lifting session. There’s something about focusing only on quality reps that really puts your head right during sets.  While squatting, I was focused only on strong speed out of the bottom rep after rep rather than thinking I had to get to a certain number of reps. I just ended up doing 5×5 coincidentally.  As it turned out, I began to lose steam on each set during the fifth rep.

The keys to this type of training are intensity and commitment. More often than not, you will slow down because of a lack of intensity or mental commitment to the set. When you start to do this over and over, these sessions will not be effective. You have to be willing to push your body to the maximum and get every ounce of speed out of that weight that you possibly can. I’d recommend only 25 rep workouts either with a group of training partners or a personal trainer to motivate you.

Parallels to Escalated Density Training

This session reminded me a bit of Escalated Density Training, which I’ll do a full post on at some point. Staley and Waterbury have very similar views on managing fatigue. I could picture the progression in this type of program working similar to EDT as well.  Using the weighted pullup as an example, I’ll probably attempt the same weight next time but try to get the work done in fewer sets, like 4 sets of 4 and 3 sets of 3, progressing each time until I can do 5 sets of 5 and then increase the weight.  This is EDT to the letter, except in this case we’re keeping reps constant and varying the time of the session, whereas EDT is the opposite. (note that I haven’t read Waterbury’s book Huge in a Hurry, so I’m not exactly sure how he suggests progression.)

Summing Up

These pair of articles are definitely head smackers, in that you read them and realize your brain has mulled over that stuff before but was never really able to order and explain it in such a nice way. Chad’s not reinventing the wheel by any stretch, but rather using sound knowledge of what works to get people strong and giving them a solid training option to put in the quiver.

22nd Oct2010

Diet and Training Lessons from IF Guru Martin Berkhan

by Tom

Martin Berkhan, the master of intermittent fasting

By now, a number of people in the Paleo community and beyond have probably come across Martin Berkhan and his site, Leangains. Martin is a fitness writer, personal trainer, and nutrition consultant in Sweden. You can see from his client results page that’s he’s done some amazing work with his trainees, not to mention himself. It’s an immediate attention grabber when I come across someone who has phenomenal success practicing what they preach. If you take a look at this series of posts on Martin’s transformation, you’ll get a firm idea of what I’m talking about. From his teenage years through late 20′s, Martin ran the gamut from a chubby 225lb high schooler to 160lb waif-skinny model, finally settling at 195lbs and a staggering 6% body fat with a 600lb deadlift.  For a number of reasons, you should take notice when you hear a story like this and absorb the pertinent messages:

  1. His before picture shows that by no means is Martin genetically predisposed to be incredibly lean. A lot of people consider single digit body fat to be an elusive haven for people who’ve won the genetic lottery, but that simply isn’t true. Genes can help, but in the end it comes down to diet + lifestyle factors + exercise.
  2. Being overweight, excessively skinny, and finally lean and powerful at different points in his life, Martin has a unique take to offer on what factors caused him to move the scale in either direction for both good and bad. No matter what your goals (cutting fat, building muscle, etc), there are likely to be a few gems in his writing that will apply to you.

With those reasons in mind for pulling up a chair and paying attention to this guy, the following are some of Martin’s points that really resonate with me.  The thing about all of these takeaways is that they’re incredibly simple and foundational.  But like so many simple, foundational concepts, they tend to get glazed over VERY frequently or turned into cliches which becomes off putting. The beauty of getting these messages from Martin is that the proof is right there in the pudding.  He’s put these simple concepts to work in an intelligent way and in the process was able to change his life and the lives of his clients.

The Importance of Protein

  • In this post on maintaining low body fat, Martin talks about the importance of a healthy dose of protein every day. In simple terms, a lot of good protein is crucial for synthesizing muscle, has a high thermic effect, is incredibly satiating, and reduces muscle loss during a fat loss diet.

Fat Loss Should Be Slow and Tempered

  • Martin’s best success came when he started to take a long term view of fat loss. His dip into mid single digit body fat came from slow fat loss with barely noticeable caloric deficits.  Not only does this make a diet easier to stick to since you’re not ravenously hungry, but it also makes for a very smooth transition into maintaining your body composition once you hit your goal.  Additionally, losing fat at a slower rate will let you retain much more muscle mass than if you try to cut fat quickly. If you’re serious about getting leaner and healthier, make it a long term project and try to maintain absolute strength and increase relative strength while you lose fat over time. This will keep you motivated with some short term goals while your long term fat loss goals will tend to work themselves out over time with little stress.

Training Should Be Simple and Heavy

  • Another impressive takeaway is Martin’s approach to training. He trains classically, prefering heavy compound lifts like the deadlift, squat, and press instead of isolated bodybuilder training. While I’ve found some success mixing in 8-10 rep hypertrophy work for assistance, there’s no doubt the most effective program for strength and body composition should be based around lower rep compound movements. In contrast to conventional wisdom, Martin does not do cardio to maintain a low body fat. He chooses to use his time more effectively in the weight room with strength training and manage his diet and lifestyle to stay lean. Many people think they can exercise away a poor diet.  This may be true to some degree, but you’ll feel a little bit like crap and waste a hell of a lot of time on the treadmill.

You CAN Maintain a Single Digit Body Fat %

  • Martin torches the notion you can’t maintain a low body fat percentage over time. While I think I’d be miserable at 5-6% body fat, he certainly shows that you can live at less than 10% very comfortably and still hold on to an enormous amount of strength. Pure and simple, this comes from intelligent nutrition and strength training. If you intelligently refeed your body after hard training sessions for recovery and keep your insulin and leptin sensitivity tight, there is no doubt you can make gains in the gym while hanging out around 8-9%. And as Martin says, it’s helpful to have some goals revolving around relative strength. If you track something like a weighted pullup or weighted dip PR over time, you’ll see big jumps in these numbers by keeping the BF% down.

You Don’t Have to Deprive Yourself Forever

  • Martin has a famous love for eating cheesecakes whole. He also drinks booze when the occasion calls for it and eats large meals regularly. In other words, he can still maintain a fun, social lifestyle complete with good food and drink while still staying in phenomenal shape. Many people (ahem, CrossFitters) think a perfect physique and perfect performance can only be gained through dietary perfection at all times. First of all, there is no perfect, so stop chasing it. Second of all, it has been repeatedly shown that the body responds favorably to variation. Eating the same number of calories at the same time every day may work at first but it will eventually lead you straight into a brick wall. The concepts behind intermittent fasting, the anabolic diet, and Tim Ferriss’ cheat day protocol all involve varying when and how you eat and have been shown to be tremendously successful. Not only do they allow you to cheat occasionally and give you a mental break from dieting, but these diets are also wonderful ways to build muscle while losing fat and improving nutrient metabolism and hormone expression.

One thing I enjoyed about reading Martin’s content when I first came across it is that I realized I was personally very close to a number of the things he was talking about in terms of fitness and nutrition. The reason is that a lot of these concepts are simple, intuitive, and they just plain work. I’d encourage you to apply some of Martin’s principles for a while and then take a Robb Wolf plan of attack and see how you ‘look, feel, and perform’.